SEMESTER - VIII

ELECTIVE – IV

CE2041 Bridge StructuresCE2042 Storage Structures

CE2043 Design of Plate and Shell Structures

CE2044 Tall Buildings

CE2045 Prefabricated structures

CE2046 Wind Engineering

ELECTIVE – V

CE2047 Computer Aided Design of Structures

CE2048 Industrial Structures

CE2049 Smart Structures and smart Materials

CE2050 Finite Element Techniques

CE2071 Repair and Rehabilitation of Structures

CE 2041 BRIDGE STRUCTURES

OBJECTIVE

At the end of this course the student shall be able to choose appropriate bridge structure and

design it for given site conditions.

UNIT I INTRODUCTION

Design of through type steel highway bridges for IRC loading - Design of stringers, cross girders

and main girders - Design of deck type steel highway bridges for IRC loading - Design of main

girders

UNIT II STEEL BRIDGES

Design of pratt type truss girder highway bridges - Design of top chord, bottom chord, web

members - Effect of repeated loading - Design of plate girder railway bridges for railway loading

- Wind effects - Design of web and flange plates - Vertical and horizontal stiffeners.

UNIT III REINFORCED CONCRETE SLAB BRIDGES

Design of solid slab bridges for IRC loading - Design of kerb - Design of tee beam bridges -

Design of panel and cantilever for IRC loadin

UNIT IV REINFORCED CONCRETE GIRDER BRIDGES

Design of tee beam - Courbon's theory - Pigeaud's curves - Design of balanced cantilever

bridges - Deck slab - Main girder - Design of cantilever - Design of articulation.

UNIT V PRESTRESSED CONCRETE BRIDGES

Design of prestressed concrete bridges - Preliminary dimensions - Flexural and torsional

parameters - Courbon's theory - Distribution coefficient by exact analysis - Design of girder

section - Maximum and minimum prestressing forces - Eccentricity - Live load and dead load

shear forces - cable zone in girder –Check for stresses at various sections - Check for diagonal

tension - Diaphragms - End block - Short term and long term deflections.

TEXT BOOKS

1. Johnson Victor D., “Essentials of Bridge Engineering”, Oxford and IBH Publishing Co.,

New Delhi, 1990.

2. Rajagopalan, N.Bridge Superstructure, Alpha Science International, 2006

REFERENCES

1. Phatak D.R., “Bridge Engineering”, Satya Prakashan, New Delhi, 1990.

2. Ponnuswamy S., “Bridge Engineering”, Tata McGraw-Hill, New Delhi, 1996.

CE 2042 STORAGE STRUCTURES

OBJECTIVE

The main objective of this course is to impart the principles involved in designing structures

which have to store different types of materials. The student at the end of the course shall be

able to design concrete and steel material retaining structures.

UNIT I STEEL WATER TANKS

Design of rectangular riveted steel water tank – Tee covers – Plates – Stays –Longitudinal and

transverse beams – Design of staging – Base plates – Foundation and anchor bolts – Design of

pressed steel water tank – Design of stays – Joints – Design of hemispherical bottom water tank

– side plates – Bottom plates – joints – Ring girder – Design of staging and foundation

.

UNIT II CONCRETE WATER TANKS

Design of Circular tanks – Hinged and fixed at the base – IS method of calculating shear forces

and moments – Hoop tension – Design of intze tank – Dome – Ring girders – Conical dome –

Staging – Bracings – Raft foundation – Design of rectangular tanks – Approximate methods and

IS methods – Design of under ground tanks – Design of base slab and side wall – Check for

uplift.

UNIT III STEEL BUNKERS AND SILOS

Design of square bunker – Jansen’s and Airy’s theories – IS Codal provisions – Design of side

plates – Stiffeners – Hooper – Longitudinal beams – Design of cylindrical silo – Side plates –

Ring girder – stiffeners.

UNIT IV CONCRETE BUNKERS AND SILOS

Design of square bunker – Side Walls – Hopper bottom – Top and bottom edge beams –

Design of cylindrical silo – Wall portion – Design of conical hopper – Ring beam at junction

UNIT V PRESTRESSED CONCRETE WATER TANKS

Principles of circular prestressing – Design of prestressed concrete circular water tanks

TEXT BOOKS

1. Rajagopalan K., Storage Structures, Tata McGraw-Hill, New Delhi, 1998.

2. Krishna Raju N., Advanced Reinforced Concrete Design, CBS Publishers and

Distributors, New Delhi, 1998.

CE 2043 DESIGN OF PLATE AND SHELL STRUCTURES

OBJECTIVE

At the end of this course the student shall understand the rudimentary principles involved in the

analysis and design of plates and shells.

UNIT I THIN PLATES WITH SMALL DEFLECTION

Laterally loaded thin plates – governing differential equations – Simply supported and fixed

boundary conditions

UNIT II RECTANGULAR PLATES

Simply supported rectangular plates – Navier’s solution and Levy’s method.

UNIT III THIN SHELLS

Classification of shells-structural actions – membrane theory

UNIT IV ANALYSIS OF SHELLS

Analysis of spherical dome – cylindrical shells – folded plates

UNIT V DESIGN OF SHELLS

Design of spherical dome – cylindrical shells – folded plates

TEXT BOOKS

1. Bairagi N K, A text book of Plate Analysis, Khanna Publishers, New Delhi, 1996.

2. G.S. Ramaswamy, Design and Construction of Shell Structures, CBS Plublishers,

New Delhi, 1996

3. S. Timoshenko & S. Woinowsky – Krieger, “Theory of Plates and Shells”, McGraw Hill

Book Company

REFERENCES

1. Szilard R, Theory and analysis of plates, Prentice Hall Inc, 1995

2. Chatterjee B. K., Theory and Design of Concrete Shells, Oxford & IBH, New Delhi, 1998

3. Billington D. P., Thin Shell Concrete Structures, McGraw-Hill, 1995.

CE 2044 TALL BUILDINGS

OBJECTIVE

At the end of this course the student should have understood the problems associated with

large heights of structures with respect to loads (wind and earthquake and deflections of the

structure). He should know the rudimentary principles of designing tall buildings as per the

existing course.

UNIT I INTRODUCTION

The Tall Building in the Urban Context - The Tall Building and its Support Structure -

Development of High Rise Building Structures - General Planning Considerations. Dead Loads -

Live Loads-Construction Loads -Snow, Rain, and Ice Loads - Wind Loads-Seismic Loading –

Water and Earth Pressure Loads - Loads - Loads Due to Restrained Volume Changes of

Material - Impact and Dynamic Loads - Blast Loads -Combination of Loads.

UNIT II THE VERTICAL STRUCTURE PLANE

Dispersion of Vertical Forces- Dispersion of Lateral Forces - Optimum Ground Level Space -

Shear Wall Arrangement - Behaviour of Shear Walls under Lateral Loading. The Floor Structure

or Horizontal Building Plane Floor Framing Systems-Horizontal Bracing- Composite Floor

Systems The High - Rise Building as related to assemblage Kits Skeleton Frame Systems -

Load Bearing Wall Panel Systems - Panel – Frame Systems - Multistory Box Systems.

UNIT III COMMON HIGH-RISE BUILDING STRUCTURES AND THEIR BEHAVIOUR

UNDER LOAD

The Bearing Wall Structure- The Shear Core Structure - Rigid Frame Systems- The Wall -

Beam Structure: Interspatial and Staggered Truss Systems - Frame - Shear Wall Building

Systems - Flat Slab Building Structures - Shear Truss - Frame Interaction System with Rigid -

Belt Trusses - Tubular Systems-Composite Buildings - Comparison of High - Rise Structural

Systems Other Design Approaches Controlling Building Drift Efficient Building Forms - The

Counteracting Force or Dynamic Response.

UNIT IV APPROXIMATE STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF BUILDINGS

Approximate Analysis of Bearing Wall Buildings The Cross Wall Structure - The Long Wall

Structure The Rigid Frame Structure Approximate Analysis for Vertical Loading - Approximate

Analysis for Lateral Loading - Approximate Design of Rigid Frame Buildings-Lateral Deformation

of Rigid Frame Buildings The Rigid Frame - Shear Wall Structure - The Vierendeel Structure -

The Hollow Tube Structure.

UNIT V OTHER HIGH-RISE BUILDING STRUCTURE

Deep - Beam Systems -High-Rise Suspension Systems - Pneumatic High -Rise Buildings -

Space Frame Applied to High - Rise Buildings - Capsule Architecture.

TEXT BOOKS

1. WOLFGANG SCHUELLER " High - rise building Structures", John Wiley and Sons,

New York 1976.

2. Bryan Stafford Smith and Alex Coull, " Tall Building Structures ", Analysis and Design,

John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1991.

REFERENCES

1. COULL, A. and SMITH, STAFFORD, B. " Tall Buildings ", Pergamon Press, London,

1997.

2. LinT.Y. and Burry D.Stotes, " Structural Concepts and Systems for Architects and

Engineers ", John Wiley, 1994.

3. Lynn S.Beedle, Advances in Tall Buildings, CBS Publishers and Distributors, Delhi,

1996.

4. Taranath.B.S., Structural Analysis and Design of Tall Buildings, Mc Graw Hill,1998.

CE 2045 PREFABRICATED STRUCTURES

OBJECTIVE

At the end of this course the student shall be able to appreciate modular construction,

industrialised construction and shall be able to design some of the prefabricated elements and

also have the knowledge of the construction methods using these elements.

UNIT I INTRODUCTION

Need for prefabrication – Principles – Materials – Modular coordination – Standarization –

Systems – Production – Transportation – Erection.

UNIT II PREFABRICATED COMPONENTS

Behaviour of structural components – Large panel constructions – Construction of roof and floor

slabs – Wall panels – Columns – Shear walls

UNIT III DESIGN PRINCIPLES

Disuniting of structures- Design of cross section based on efficiency of material used –

Problems in design because of joint flexibility – Allowance for joint deformation.

UNIT IV JOINT IN STRUCTURAL MEMBERS

Joints for different structural connections – Dimensions and detailing – Design of expansion

joints

UNIT V DESIGN FOR ABNORMAL LOADS

Progressive collapse – Code provisions – Equivalent design loads for considering abnormal

effects such as earthquakes, cyclones, etc., - Importance of avoidance of progressive collapse.

TEXT BOOKS

1. CBRI, Building materials and components, India, 1990

2. Gerostiza C.Z., Hendrikson C. and Rehat D.R., Knowledge based process planning for

construction and manufacturing, Academic Press Inc., 1994

REFERENCES

1. Koncz T., Manual of precast concrete construction, Vols. I, II and III, Bauverlag, GMBH,

1971.

2. Structural design manual, Precast concrete connection details, Society for the studies in

the use of precast concrete, Netherland Betor Verlag, 1978.

CE 2046 WIND ENGINEERING

OBJECTIVE

At the end of this course the student should be able to appreciate the forces generated on

structures due to normal wind as well as gusts. He should also be able to analyse the dynamic

effects created by these wind forces.

UNIT I INTRODUCTION

Terminology – Wind Data – Gust factor and its determination - Wind speed variation with height

– Shape factor – Aspect ratio – Drag and lift.

UNIT II EFFECT OF WIND ON STRUCTURES

Static effect – Dynamic effect – Interference effects (concept only) – Rigid structure –

Aeroelastic structure (concept only).

UNIT III EFFECT ON TYPICAL STRUCTURES

Tail buildings – Low rise buildings – Roof and cladding – Chimneys, towers and bridges.

UNIT IV APPLICATION TO DESIGN

Design forces on multistorey building, towers and roof trusses.

UNIT V INTRODUCTION TO WIND TUNNEL

Types of models (Principles only) – Basic considerations – Examples of tests and their use.

TEXT BOOKS

1. Peter Sachs, “Wind Forces in Engineering, Pergamon Press, New York, 1992.

2. Lawson T.V., Wind Effects on Buildings, Vols. I and II, Applied Science and Publishers,

London, 1993.

REFERENCES

1. Devenport A.G., “Wind Loads on Structures”, Division of Building Research, Ottowa,

1990.

2. Wind Force on Structures – Course Notes, Building Technology Centre, Anna University,

1995.

CE 2047 COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN OF STRUCTURE

OBJECTIVE

The main objective of this programme is to train the student in the use of computers and

creating a computer code as well as using commercially available software for the design of

Civil Engineering structures.

UNIT I INTRODUCTION

Fundamentals of CAD - Hardware and software requirements -Design process - Applications

and benefits

UNIT II COMPUTER GRAPHICS

Graphic primitives - Transformations -Wire frame modeling and solid modeling -Graphic

standards –Drafting packages

UNIT III STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS

Fundamentals of finite element analysis - Principles of structural analysis -Analysis packages

and applications.

UNIT IV DESIGN AND OPTIMISATION

Principles of design of steel and RC Structures -Applications to simple design problems –

Optimisation techniques - Algorithms - Linear Programming – Simplex method

UNIT V EXPERT SYSTEMS

Introduction to artificial intelligence - Knowledge based expert systems -Rules and decision

tables –Inference mechanisms - Simple applications.

TEXT BOOKS

1. Groover M.P. and Zimmers E.W. Jr., “CAD/CAM, Computer Aided Design and

Manufacturing”, Prentice Hall of India Ltd, New Delhi, 1993.

2. Krishnamoorthy C.S.Rajeev S., “Computer Aided Design”, Narosa Publishing House,

New Delhi, 1993

REFERENCES

1. Harrison H.B., “Structural Analysis and Design”, Part I and II Pergamon Press, Oxford,

1990.

2. Rao S.S., “Optimisation Theory and Applications”, Wiley Eastern Limited, New Delhi,

1977.

3. Richard Forsyth (Ed), “Expert System Principles and Case Studies”, Chapman and Hall,

London, 1989.

CE 2048 INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURES

OBJECTIVE

This course deals with some of the special aspects with respect to Civil Engineering structures

in industries. At the end of this course the student shall be able to design some of the

structures.

UNIT I PLANNING

Classification of Industries and Industrial structures – General requirements for industries like

cement, chemical and steel plants – Planning and layout of buildings and components.

UNIT II FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS

Lighting – Ventilation – Acoustics – Fire safety – Guidelines from factories act.

UNIIT III DESIGN OF STEEL STRUCTURES

Industrial roofs – Crane girders – Mill buildings – Design of Bunkers and Silos

UNIT IV DESIGN OF R.C. STRUCTURES

Silos and bunkers – Chimneys – Principles of folded plates and shell roofs

UNIT V PREFABRICATION

Principles of prefabrication – Prestressed precast roof trusses- Functional requirements for

Precast concrete units

TEXT BOOKS

1. Reinforced Concrete Structural elements – P. Purushothaman.

2. Pasala Dayaratnam – Design of Steel Structure – 1990.

REFERENCES

1. Henn W. Buildings for Industry, vols.I and II, London Hill Books, 1995.

2. Handbook on Functional Requirements of Industrial buildings, SP32 – 1986, Bureau of

Indian Standards, New Delhi 1990.

3. Course Notes on Modern Developments in the Design and Construction of Industrial

Structures, Structural Engineering Research Centre, Madras, 1982.

4. Koncz, J, Manual of Precast Construction Vol I & II Bauverlay GMBH, 1971.

CE 2049 SMART STRUCTURES AND SMART MATERIALS

OBJECTIVE

This course is designed to give an insight into the latest developments regarding smart

materials and their use in structures. Further, this also deals with structures which can self

adjust their stiffness with load.

UNIT I INTRODUCTION

Introduction to Smart Materials and Structures – Instrumented structures functions and

response – Sensing systems – Self diagnosis – Signal processing consideration – Actuation

systems and effectors.

UNIT II MEASURING TECHNIQUES

Strain Measuring Techniques using Electrical strain gauges, Types – Resistance – Capacitance

– Inductance – Wheatstone bridges – Pressure transducers – Load cells – Temperature

Compensation – Strain Rosettes.

UNIT III SENSORS

Sensing Technology – Types of Sensors – Physical Measurement using Piezo Electric Strain

measurement – Inductively Read Transducers – The LVOT – Fiber optic Techniques.

Chemical and Bio-Chemical sensing in structural Assessment – Absorptive chemical sensors –

Spectroscopes – Fibre Optic Chemical Sensing Systems and Distributed measurement.

UNIT IV ACTUATORS

Actuator Techniques – Actuator and actuator materials – Piezoelectric and Electrostrictive

Material – Magnetostructure Material – Shape Memory Alloys – Electro orheological Fluids–

Electro magnetic actuation – Role of actuators and Actuator Materials.

UNIT V SIGNAL PROCESSING AND CONTROL SYSTEMS

Data Acquisition and Processing – Signal Processing and Control for Smart Structures –

Sensors as Geometrical Processors – Signal Processing – Control System – Linear and Non-

Linear.

TEXT BOOKS

1. Brain Culshaw – Smart Structure and Materials Artech House – Borton. London-1996.

REFERENCES

1. L. S. Srinath – Experimental Stress Analysis – Tata McGraw-Hill, 1998.

2. J. W. Dally & W. F. Riley – Experimental Stress Analysis – Tata McGraw-Hill, 1998.

CE 2050 FINITE ELEMENT TECHNIQUES

OBJECTIVE

At the end of this course the student shall have a basic knowledge of finite element method and

shall be able to analyse linear elastic structures, that he has studied about in core courses,

using finite element method.

UNIT I INTRODUCTION – VARIATIONAL FORMULATION

General field problems in Engineering – Modelling – Discrete and Continuous models –

Characteristics – Difficulties involved in solution – The relevance and place of the finite element

method – Historical comments – Basic concept of FEM, Boundary and initial value problems –

Gradient and divergence theorems – Functionals – Variational calculus Variational formulation

of VBPS. The method of weighted residuals – The Ritz method.

UNIT II FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF ONE DIMENSIONAL PROBLEMS

One dimensional second order equations – discretisation of domain into elements –

Generalised coordinates approach – derivation of elements equations – assembly of elements

equations – imposition of boundary conditions – solution of equations – Cholesky method – Post

processing – Extension of the method to fourth order equations and their solutions – time

dependant problems and their solutions – example from heat transfer, fluid flow and solid

mechanics.

UNIT III FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF TWO DIMENSIONAL PROBLEMS

Second order equation involving a scalar-valued function – model equation – Variational

formulation – Finite element formulation through generalised coordinates approach – Triangular

elements and quadrilateral elements – convergence criteria for chosen models – Interpolation

functions – Elements matrices and vectors – Assembly of element matrices – boundary

conditions – solution techniques.

UNIT IV ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS AND FORMULATION

Natural coordinates in 1, 2 and 3 dimensions – use of area coordinates for triangular elements

in - 2 dimensional problems – Isoparametric elements in 1,2 and 3 dimensional Largrangean

and serendipity elements – Formulations of elements equations in one and two dimensions -

Numerical integration.

UNIT V APPLICATIONS TO FIELD PROBLEMS IN TWO DIMENSIONALS

Equations of elasticity – plane elasticity problems – axisymmetric problems in elasticity –

Bending of elastic plates – Time dependent problems in elasticity – Heat – transfer in two

dimensions – incompressible fluid flow

TEXT BOOK

1. Chandrupatla, T.R., and Belegundu, A.D., “Introduction to Finite Element in

Engineering”, Third Edition, Prentice Hall, India, 2003.

REFERENCES

1. J.N.Reddy, “An Introduction to Finite Element Method”, McGraw-Hill, Intl. Student

Edition, 1985.

2. Zienkiewics, “The finite element method, Basic formulation and linear problems”, Vol.1,

4/e, McGraw-Hill, Book Co.

3. S.S.Rao, “The Finite Element Method in Engineering”, Pergaman Press, 2003.

4. C.S.Desai and J.F.Abel, “Introduction to the Finite Element Method”, Affiliated East West

Press, 1972.

CE 2071 REPAIR AND REHABILITATION OF STRUCTURES

OBJECTIVE

To get the knowledge on quality of concrete, durability aspects, causes of deterioration,

assessment of distressed structures, repairing of structures and demolition procedures.

UNIT I MAINTENANCE AND REPAIR STRATEGIES

Maintenance, repair and rehabilitation, Facets of Maintenance, importance of Maintenance

various aspects of Inspection, Assessment procedure for evaluating a damaged structure,

causes of deterioration

UNIT II SERVICEABILITY AND DURABILITY OF CONCRETE

Quality assurance for concrete construction concrete properties- strength, permeability, thermal

properties and cracking. - Effects due to climate, temperature, chemicals, corrosion - design

and construction errors - Effects of cover thickness and cracking

UNIT III MATERIALS FOR REPAIR

Special concretes and mortar, concrete chemicals, special elements for accelerated strength

gain, Expansive cement, polymer concrete, sulphur infiltrated concrete, ferro cement, Fibre

reinforced concrete.

UNIT IV TECHNIQUES FOR REPAIR AND DEMOLITION

Rust eliminators and polymers coating for rebars during repair, foamed concrete, mortar and dry

pack, vacuum concrete, Gunite and Shotcrete, Epoxy injection, Mortar repair for cracks, shoring

and underpinning. Methods of corrosion protection, corrosion inhibitors, corrosion resistant

steels, coatings and cathodic protection. Engineered demolition techniques for dilapidated

structures - case studies.

UNIT V REPAIRS, REHABILITATION AND RETROFITTING OF STRUCTURES

Repairs to overcome low member strength, Deflection, Cracking, Chemical disruption,

weathering corrosion, wear, fire, leakage and marine exposure.

TEXT BOOKS

1. Denison Campbell, Allen and Harold Roper, Concrete Structures, Materials,

Maintenance and Repair, Longman Scientific and Technical UK, 1991.

2. R.T.Allen and S.C.Edwards, Repair of Concrete Structures, Blakie and Sons, UK, 1987

REFERENCES

1. M.S.Shetty, Concrete Technology - Theory and Practice, S.Chand and Company, New

Delhi, 1992.

2. Santhakumar, A.R., Training Course notes on Damage Assessment and repair in Low

Cost Housing , "RHDC-NBO" Anna University, July 1992.

3. Raikar, R.N., Learning from failures - Deficiencies in Design, Construction and Service -

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