Civil Engineering SEMESTER IV

MA 2264 Numerical Methods

CE 2251 Soil Mechanics

CE 2252 Strength of Materials

CE 2253 Applied Hydraulic Engineering

CE 2254 Surveying – II

CE 2255 Highway Engineering

PRACTICAL

CE 2257 Strength of Materials Lab

CE 2258 Hydraulic Engineering Laboratory

CE 2259 Survey Practical – II

MA2264 NUMERICAL METHODS

UNIT I SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS AND EIGENVALUE PROBLEMS

Solution of equation –Fixed point iteration: x=g(x) method - Newton’s method – Solution of

linear system by Gaussian elimination and Gauss-Jordon method– Iterative method - Gauss-

Seidel method - Inverse of a matrix by Gauss Jordon method – Eigen value of a matrix by

power method and by Jacobi method for symmetric matrix.

UNIT II INTERPOLATION AND APPROXIMATION

Lagrangian Polynomials – Divided differences – Interpolating with a cubic spline – Newton’s

forward and backward difference formulas.

UNIT III NUMERICAL DIFFERENTIATION AND INTEGRATION

Differentiation using interpolation formulae –Numerical integration by trapezoidal and Simpson’s

1/3 and 3/8 rules – Romberg’s method – Two and Three point Gaussian quadrature formulae –

Double integrals using trapezoidal and Simpsons’s rules.

UNIT IV INITIAL VALUE PROBLEMS FOR ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

Single step methods: Taylor series method – Euler method for first order equation – Fourth

order Runge – Kutta method for solving first and second order equations – Multistep methods:

Milne’s and Adam’s predictor and corrector methods.

UNIT V BOUNDARY VALUE PROBLEMS IN ORDINARY AND PARTIAL

DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

Finite difference solution of second order ordinary differential equation – Finite difference

solution of one dimensional heat equation by explicit and implicit methods – One dimensional

wave equation and two dimensional Laplace and Poisson equations.

TEXT BOOKS

1. Veerarjan, T and Ramachandran, T., “Numerical methods with programming in C”,

Second Editiion, Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing.Co.Ltd, 2007.

2. Sankara Rao K, “Numerical Methods for Scientisits and Engineers”, 3rd Edition, Printice

Hall of India Private Ltd, New Delhi, 2007.

REFERENCE BOOKS

1. Chapra, S. C and Canale, R. P., “Numerical Methods for Engineers”, 5th Edition, Tata

McGraw-Hill, New Delhi, 2007.

2. Gerald, C. F. and Wheatley, P.O., “Applied Numerical Analysis”, 6th Edition, Pearson

Education, Asia, New Delhi, 2006.

3. Grewal, B.S. and Grewal,J.S., “ Numerical methods in Engineering and Science”, 6th

Edition, Khanna Publishers, New Delhi, 2004.

CE2251 SOIL MECHANICS

UNIT I INTRODUCTION

Nature of Soil - Problems with soil - phase relation - sieve analysis - sedimentation analysis –

Atterberg limits - classification for engineering purposes - BIS Classification system - Soil

compaction - factors affecting compaction – field compaction methods and monitoring.

UNIT II SOIL WATER AND WATER FLOW

Soil water – Various forms – Influence of clay minerals – Capillary rise – Suction - Effective

stress concepts in soil – Total, neutral and effective stress distribution in soil - Permeability –

Darcy’s Law- Permeability measurement in the laboratory – quick sand condition - Seepage –

Laplace Equation - Introduction to flow nets –properties and uses - Application to simple

problems.

UNIT III STRESS DISTRIBUTION, COMPRESSIBILITY AND SETTLEMENT

Stress distribution in soil media – Boussinesque formula – stress due to line load and Circular

and rectangular loaded area - approximate methods - Use of influence charts – Westergaard

equation for point load - Components of settlement - Immediate and consolidation settlement -

Terzaghi's one dimensional consolidation theory – governing differential equation - laboratory

consolidation test – Field consolidation curve – NC and OC clays - problems on final and time

rate of consolidation

UNIT IV SHEAR STRENGTH

Shear strength of cohesive and cohesionless soils - Mohr - Coulomb failure theory – Saturated

soil - Strength parameters - Measurement of shear strength, direct shear, Triaxial compression,

UCC and Vane shear tests –Types of shear tests based on drainage and their applicability -

Drained and undrained behaviour of clay and sand – Stress path for conventional triaxial test.

UNIT V SLOPE STABILITY

Slope failure mechanisms - Modes - Infinite slopes - Finite slopes – Total and effective stress

analysis - Stability analysis for purely cohesive and C- soils - Method of slices – Modified

Bishop’s method - Friction circle method - stability number – problems – Slope protection

measures.

TEXT BOOKS

1. Punmia P.C., “Soil Mechanics and Foundations”, Laximi Publications Pvt. Ltd., New

Delhi, 1995.

2. Gopal Ranjan and Rao A.S.R., “Basic and applied soil mechanics”, New Age

International Publishers, New Delhi, 2000.

3. Venkatramaiah, C. “Geotechnical Engineering”, New Age International Publishers, New

Delhi, 1995

4. Khan I.H., “A text book of Geotechnical Engineering”, Prentice Hall of India, New Delhi,

1999.

REFERENCES

1. Coduto, D.P., “Geotechnical Engineering Principles and Practices”, Prentice Hall of India

Private Limited, New Delhi, 2002.

2. McCarthy D.F., “Essentials of Soil Mechanics and Foundations Basic Geotechniques”,

Sixth Edition, Prentice-Hall, New Jersey, 2002.

3. Das, B.M, “Principles of Geotechnical Engineering”, (fifth edition), Thomas Books/ cole,

2002

4. Muni Budhu, “Soil Mechanics and Foundations”, John Willey & Sons, Inc, New York,

2000.

CE2252 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS

UNIT I ENERGY PRINCIPLES

Strain energy and strain energy density – strain energy in traction, shear in flexure and torsion –

castigliano’s theorems – principle of virtual work – application of energy theorems for computing

deflections in beams and trusses – Maxwell’s reciprocal theorems

UNIT II INDETERMINATE BEAMS

Propped cantilever and fixed beams-fixed end moments and reactions for concentrated load

(central, non central), uniformly distributed load, triangular load (maximum at centre and

maximum at end) – theorem of three moments – analysis of continuous beams – shear force

and bending moment diagrams for continuous beams – slope & deflections in continuous

beams (qualitative study only)

UNIT III COLUMNS

Eccentrically loaded short columns – middle third rule – core section – columns of

unsymmetrical sections – (angle channel sections) – Euler’s theory of long columns – critical

loads for prismatic columns with different end conditions; Rankine-Gordon formula for

eccentrically loaded columns – thick cylinders – compound cylinders.

UNIT IV STATE OF STRESS IN THREE DIMENSIONS

Spherical and deviatory components of stress tensor - determination of principal stresses and

principal planes – volumetric strain – dilatation and distortion – theories of failure – principal

stress dilatation – principal strain – shear stress – strain energy and distortion energy theories –

application in analysis of stress, load carrying capacity and design of members – residual

stresses

UNIT V ADVANCED TOPICS IN BENDING OF BEAMS

Unsymmetrical bending of beams of symmetrical and unsymmetrical sections – curved beams –

Winkler Bach formula – stress concentration – fatigue and fracture.

TEXT BOOKS

1. Egor P Popov, “Engineering Mechanics of Solids”, Prentice Hall of India, New Delhi,

2003

2. Rajput R.K. Strength of Materials, S.Chand&company Ltd., New Delhi - 2006

REFERENCES

1. Kazimi S.M.A, “Solid Mechanics”, Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Co., New Delhi, 2003

2. William A .Nash, “Theory and Problems of Strength of Materials”, Schaum’s Outline

Series, Tata McGraw Hill Publishing company Ltd, 2007.

3. Srinath, L.S. Advanced mechanics and solids, Tata-McGraw Hill publishing

company ltd, 2005.

4. Punmia B.C.Theory of Structures (SMTS) Vol 1&II, Laxmi publishing Pvt Ltd,New Delhi

,2004.

CE2253 APPLIED HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING

UNIT I OPEN CHANNEL FLOW 9+3

Open channel flow – Types and regimes of flow – Velocity distribution in open channel – Wide

open channel – Specific energy – Critical flow and its computation – channel transition.

UNIT II UNIFORM FLOW

Uniform flow – Velocity measurement – Manning’s and Chezy’s formula – Determination of

roughness coefficients – Determination of normal depth and velocity – Most economical

sections – Non-erodible channels

UNIT II I VARIED FLOW

Dynamic equations of gradually varied flow – Assumptions – Characteristics of flow profiles –

Draw down and back water curves – Profile determination – Graphical integration, direct step

and standard step method – Flow through transitions - Hydraulic jump – Types – Energy

dissipation – Surges.

UNIT IV PUMPS

Centrifugal pump - minimum speed to start the pump – multistage Pumps – Jet and submersible

pumps - Positive displacement pumps - reciprocating pump - negative slip - flow separation

conditions - air vessels -indicator diagram and its variation - savings in work done - rotary

pumps.

UNIT V TURBINES

Turbines - draft tube and cavitations – Application of momentum principle – Impact of jets on

plane and curved plates - turbines - classification - radial flow turbines - axial flow turbines –

Impulse and Reaction

TEXT BOOKS

1. Subramanya K., "Flow in Open channels", Tata McGraw-Hill PublishingCompany,

1994.

2. Modi, P.N, and Seth S.M. Hydraulic and Fluid Mechanics Standard Book House, 2000.

3. Bansal R.K, Fluid mechanics & Hydraulic machines, Laxmi Publishing Pvt Ltd, New

Delhi - 2007

REFERENCES

1. Jain A.K., "Fluid Mechanics (including Hydraulic Machines)", Khanna Publishers,

8th edition, 1995.

2. Ranga Raju, K.G., “Flow through Open Channels”, Tata McGraw-Hill, 1985

CE2254 SURVEYING II

UNIT I TACHEOMETRIC SURVEYING

Tacheometric systems - Tangential, stadia and subtense methods - Stadia systems - Horizontal

and inclined sights - Vertical and normal staffing - Fixed and movable hairs - Stadia constants -

Anallactic lens - Subtense bar.

UNIT II CONTROL SURVEYING

Working from whole to part - Horizontal and vertical control methods - Triangulation - Signals -

Base line - Instruments and accessores - Corrections - Satellite station - Reduction to centre -

Trignometric levelling - Single and reciprocal observations - Modern trends – Bench marking

UNIT III SURVEY ADJUSTMENTS

Errors - Sources, precautions and corrections - Classification of errors - True and most probable

values - weighted observations - Method of equal shifts - Principle of least squares - Normal

equation - Correlates - Level nets - Adjustment of simple triangulation networks

UNIT IV ASTRONOMICAL SURVEYING

Celestial sphere - Astronomical terms and definitions - Motion of sun and stars - Apparent

altitude and corrections - Celestial co-ordinate systems - Different time systems - use of

Nautical almanac - Star constellations - calculations for azimuth of a line.

UNIT V HYDROGRAPHIC AND ADVANCE SURVEYING

Hydrographic Surveying - Tides - MSL - Sounding methods - Location of soundings and

methods - Three point problem - Strength of fix - Sextants and station pointer - River surveys -

Measurement of current and discharge - Photogrammetry - Introduction – Basic concepts of

Terrestial and aerial Photographs - Stereoscopy – Definition of Parallax. Electromagnetic

distance measurement – Basic principles - Instruments – Trilateration. Basic concepts of

Cartography and Cadastral surveying.

TEXT BOOKS

1. Bannister A. and Raymond S., Surveying, ELBS, Sixth Edition, 1992.

2. Punmia B.C., Surveying, Vols. I, II and III, Laxmi Publications, 1989.

3. Kanetkar T.P., Surveying and Levelling, Vols. I and II, United Book Corporation, Pune,

1994.

REFERENCES

1. Clark D., Plane and Geodetic Surveying, Vols. I and II, C.B.S. Publishers and

Distributors, Delhi, Sixth Edition, 1971.

2. James M.Anderson and Edward M.Mikhail, Introduction to Surveying, McGraw-Hill Book

Company, 1985.

3. Wolf P.R., Elements of Photogrammetry, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Second Edition,

1986.

4. Robinson A.H., Sale R.D. Morrison J.L. and Muehrche P.C., Elements of Cartography,

John Wiley and Sons, New York, Fifth Edition, 1984.

5. Heribert Kahmen and Wolfgang Faig, Surveying, Walter de Gruyter, 1995.

CE2255 HIGHWAY ENGINEERING

UNIT I HIGHWAY PLANNING AND ALIGNMENT

History of Road Construction, Highway Development in India - Jayakar Committee

Recommendations and Realisations, Twenty-year Road Development Plans, Concepts of Ongoing

Highway Development Programmes at National Level, Institutions for Highway

Development at National level - Indian Roads Congress, Highway Research Board, National

Highway Authority of India, Ministry of Road Transport and Highways (MORTH) and Central

Road Research Institute. Requirements of Ideal Alignment, Factors Controlling Highway

Alignment Engineering Surveys for Alignment - Conventional Methods and Modern Methods

(Remote Sensing, GIS and GPS techniques) Classification and Cross Section of Urban and

Rural Roads (IRC), Highway Cross Sectional Elements – Right of Way, Carriage Way, Camber,

Kerbs, Shoulders and Footpaths [IRC Standards], Cross sections of different Class of Roads -

Principles of Highway Financing

UNIT II GEOMETRIC DESIGN OF HIGHWAYS

Design of Horizontal Alignment – Horizontal Curves Super elevation, Widening of Pavements on

Horizontal Curves and Transition Curves Design of Vertical Alignments – Rolling, Limiting,

Exceptional and Minimum Gradients, Summit and Valley Curves-Sight Distances - Factors

affecting Sight Distances, PIEV theory, Stopping Sight Distance (SSD), Overtaking Sight

Distance (OSD), Sight Distance at Intersections, Intermediate Sight Distance and Illumination

Sight Distance [Derivations and Problems in SSD and OSD] -Geometric Design of Hill Roads

[IRC Standards Only]

UNIT III FLEXIBLE AND RIGID PAVEMENTS

Rigid and Flexible Pavements- Components and their Functions -Design Principles of Flexible

and Rigid Pavements, Factors affecting the Design of Pavements - ESWL, Climate, Sub-grade

Soil and Traffic - Design Practice for Flexible Pavements [IRC Method and Recommendations-

Problems] - Design Practice for Rigid Pavements – IRC Recommendations - concepts only.

UNIT IV HIGHWAY MATERIALS AND CONSTRUCTION PRACTICE

Desirable Properties and Testing of Highway Materials: Soil – California Bearing Ratio Test,

Field Density Test - Aggregate - Crushing, Abrasion, Impact Tests, Water absorption, Flakiness

and Elongation indices and Stone polishing value test - Bitumen - Penetration, Ductility,

Viscosity, Binder content and Softening point Tests. - Construction Practice - Water Bound

Macadam Road, Bituminous Road and Cement Concrete Road [as per IRC and MORTH

specifications] - Highway Drainage [IRC Recommendations]

UNIT V HIGHWAY MAINTENANCE

Types of defects in Flexible pavements – Surface defects, Cracks, Deformation, Disintegration –

Symptoms, Causes and Treatments. - Types of Pavement, Failures in Rigid Pavements –

Scaling, Shrinkage, Warping, Structural Cracks Spalling of Joints and Mud Pumping – and

Special Repairs. - Pavement Evaluation – Pavement Surface Conditions and Structural

Evaluation, Evaluation of pavement Failure and strengthening - Overlay design by Benkelman

Beam Method [Procedure only],

TEXT BOOKS

1. Khanna K and Justo C E G, Highway Engineering, Khanna Publishers, Roorkee, 2001.

2. Kadiyali L R, Principles and Practice of Highway Engineering, Khanna Technical

Publications, Delhi, 2000.

REFERENCES

1. Transportation Engineering & Planning, C.S. Papacostas, P.D. Prevedouros, Prentice

Hall of India Pvt ltd, 2006.

2. IRC Standards (IRC 37 - 2001 & IRC 58 -1998)

3. Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) Publications on Highway Materials

4. Specifications for Road and Bridges, MORTH (India)

CE2257 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS LABORATORY

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS

1. Test involving axial compression to obtain the stress – strain curve

2. Test involving axial tension to obtain the stress – strain curve and the strength

3. Test involving torsion to obtain the torque vs. angle of twist and hence the

stiffness

4. Test involving flexure to obtain the load deflection curve and hence the stiffness

5. Tests on springs

6. Hardness tests

7. Shear test

8. Test for impact resistance

9. Tests on Cement

The student should learn the use of deflectometer, extensometer, compressometer and strain

gauges.

LIST OF EQUIPMENTS

(For a batch of 30 students)

Sl. No. Description of Equipments Quantity

1. UTM of minimum 400 KN capacity 1

2. Torsion testing machine for steel rods 1

3. Izod impact testing machine 1

4.

Hardness testing machine

Rockwell

Vicker’s (any 2)

Brinnel

1 each

5. Beam deflection test apparatus 1

6. Extensometer 1

7. Compressometer 1

8. Dial gauges Few

9 Le Chatelier’s apparatus 2

10 Vicat’s apparatus 2

11 Mortar cube moulds 10

CE2258 HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING LAB

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS

1. Determination of co-efficient of discharge for orifice

2. Determination of co-efficient of discharge for notches

3. Determination of co-efficient of discharge for venturimeter

4. Determination of co-efficient of discharge for orifice meter

5. Study of impact of jet on flat plate (normal / inclined)

6. Study of friction losses in pipes

7. Study of minor losses in pipes

8. Study on performance characteristics of Pelton turbine.

9. Study on performance characteristics of Francis turbine

10. Study on performance characteristics of Kaplan turbine

11. Study on performance characteristics of Centrifugal pumps (Constant speed / variable

speed)

12. Study on performance characteristics of reciprocating pump.

LIST OF EQUIPMENTS

1. Bernoulli’s theorem – Verification Apparatus - 1 No.

2. Calculation of Metacentric height

water tank - 1 No.

Ship model with accessories - 1 No.

3. Measurement of velocity

Pitot tube assembly - 1 No.

4. Flow measurement

open channel flow

(i) Channel with provision for fixing notches

(rectangular, triangular & trapezoidal forms) - 1 Unit

(ii) Flume assembly with provisions for conducting

experiments on Hydraulic jumps, generation of

surges etc. - 1 Unit

5. Flow measurement in pipes

(i) Venturimeter, U tube manometer fixtures like

Valves, collecting tank - 1 Unit

(ii) Orifice meter, with all necessary fittings in

pipe lines of different diameters - 1 Unit

(iii) Calibration of flow through orifice tank with

Provisions for fixing orifices of different shapes,

collecting tank - 1 Unit

(iv) Calibration of flow through mouth piece

Tank with provisions for fixing mouth pieces

Viz external mouth pieces & internal mouth piece

Borda’s mouth piece - 1 Unit

40

6. Losses in Pipes

Major loss – Friction loss

Pipe lengths (min. 3m) of different diameters with

Valves and pressure rapping & collecting tank - 1 Unit

Minor Losses

Pipe line assembly with provisions for having

Sudden contractions in diameter, expansions

Bends, elbow fitting, etc. - 1 Unit

7. Pumps

(i) Centrifugal pump assembly with accessories

(single stage) - 1 Unit

(ii) Centrifugal pump assembly with accessories

(multi stage) - 1 Unit

(iii) Reciprocating pump assembly with accessories - 1 Unit

(iv) Deep well pump assembly set with accessories - 1 Unit

8. Turbine

(i) Impulse turbine assembly with fittings

& accessories - 1 Unit

(ii) Francis turbine assembly with fittings

& accessories - 1 Unit

(iii) Kaplan turbine assembly with fittings

& accessories - 1 Unit

CE2259 SURVEY PRACTICAL II

OBJECTIVE

At the end of the course the student will posses knowledge about Survey field techniques.

1. Study of theodolite

2. Measurement of horizontal angles by reiteration and repetition and vertical angles

3. Theodolite survey traverse

4. Heights and distances - Triangulation - Single plane method.

5. Tacheometry - Tangential system - Stadia system - Subtense system.

6. Setting out works - Foundation marking - Simple curve (right/left-handed) - Transition

curve.

7. Field observation for and Calculation of azimuth

8. Field work using Total Station.

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